Clara Barton papers
The papers of Clara Barton (1821-1912), humanitarian and founder of the American Red Cross, document various of Barton's Red Cross efforts and her involvement in the National First Aid Association. Also included are records of the Women's Relief Corps which highlight efforts to urge Congress to pass a bill granting pensions to nurses of the Civil War.
Important Information for Users of the Collection
This collection is open for research.
Clara Barton papers, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries.
Photocopies of original materials may be provided for a fee and at the discretion of the curator. Please see our Duplication of Materials policy for more information. Queries regarding publication rights and copyright status of materials within this collection should be directed to the appropriate curator.
Digital copies of the letters in this collection are available at http://digital.lib.umd.edu/results.jsp?index1=dmKeyword&query1=clara+barton in the University of Maryland's Digital Collections.
This collection is PROCESSED.
Clara (Clarissa Harlowe) Barton, humanitarian and founder of the American Red Cross, was born on December 25, 1821, in North Oxford, Massachusetts. Named after the heroine of a Samuel Richardson novel, she was the youngest of five children of Captain Stephen Barton (1774-1861), and Sarah (Stone) Barton (1784-1851). Learning to spell and read at the age of three, Barton began her formal education both outside the home, under the instruction of Richard Stone, and inside, under the guidance of her much older siblings. At the age of eight, Barton left home to attend high school, but returned after a year. Her education then continued three years later under private tutors, Lucian Burleigh and Jonathan Dana. Her long career in humanitarian service also began at an early age, when from 1832 to 1834, she was the devoted nurse and companion of her brother David, who was an invalid due to a riding accident.
From 1839 to 1850, Barton taught in local schools in the North Oxford, Massachusetts, area. Then, in 1851, she attended the Clinton Liberal Institute, a coeducational academy managed by the Universalist Church of Clinton, New York. After her term at Clinton, Barton taught at Highstown, New Jersey (1851-1852), and then at Bordentown, New Jersey (1852-1854), where she established the first free public school in the community. When Bordentown officials hired a male president to run the successful school, Barton resigned. She then went to Washington, DC, where, with the help of Alexander DeWitt, a congressman from her home district, she got a job as a clerk in the U.S. Patent Office, as one of the first regularly appointed female civil servants. She held this position from 1854 to 1857, and then again from 1860 to 1861; the intervening years, during Buchanan's presidency, she spent at home.
The outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 began for Barton a long career in providing care for the sick and wounded. Remembered later as the "Angel of the Battlefield," Barton saw the need for women's help in nursing and caring for the sick and wounded, but until she got the necessary permission, women were not allowed in hospitals or on battlefields. In April 1861, she provided nursing care and supplies for the wounded of the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment, involved in a Baltimore riot. After securing permission from Surgeon-General William A. Hammond to visit battlefields and to cross enemy lines, Barton brought aid and supplies to the wounded on sixteen battlefields, including those of Antietam, Fredericksburg, the siege of Charleston, and the Wilderness campaign.
Following the conclusion of the Civil War and until 1869, Barton held the position of the superintendent of the Missing Persons Bureau, during which time she located many of the bodies of Union soldiers who died as prisoners at Andersonville, Georgia, where she rebuilt the cemetery. Meanwhile, from 1866 to 1868, she traveled extensively, giving public lectures throughout the North and West. When her voice gave out, she went to Europe to rest, and there first learned of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
In 1863, inspired by Jean Henri Dunant's view that relief societies were needed to help the wounded in war, Gustave Moynier joined Dunant to gather support for a meeting of nations to form such a body. As a result, the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed and gained official status in 1864 at a convention in Geneva, Switzerland. By the time Barton learned of the Treaty of Geneva of 1864, 32 nations had signed the document, proclaiming that medical teams and facilities should be treated as neutrals in a conflict situation, and that the wounded deserved care. Before returning home to urge the United States to sign, Barton became involved with the International Committee during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1872). Besides caring for soldiers, she showed her inclination to move beyond simple handouts to help rebuild lives, as she set helped civilian women in Strasbourg, France, earn money for food by setting up an exchange system in which the women sewed needed clothes and received money for food in return.
While resting in England and Dansville, New York, during the years 1872 to 1881, Barton worked towards American affiliation with the International Red Cross. Finally, on March 1, 1882, President Chester A. Arthur signed the Geneva Treaty; the year before, Barton had organized the American Association of the Red Cross. President James A. Garfield appointed her its first president. Barton also served as the American governmental delegate to the international Red Cross conferences in Geneva, Switzerland (1884); Carlsruhe, Germany (1887); Rome, Italy (1890); Vienna, Austria (1897); and St. Petersburg, Russia (1902). At the 1884 conference in Geneva, Barton secured the adoption of an "American amendment" which authorized the Red Cross to help not only in times of war, but in times of natural disaster and calamity during peace.
Nine years after the United States signed the Geneva Treaty, Barton began urging Congress to both incorporate the Red Cross as an official national body, with political and economic support, and pass a bill, which would protect the organization's insignia from fraudulent uses by others. Unfortunately, both bills died in committee. Barton then met with her advisors, and at the first board meeting in almost ten years, reached decisions regarding the executive committee, the local societies, and membership, and drafted a new constitution. At this time, the name was changed from the American Association of the Red Cross to the American National Red Cross.
During her presidency, Barton also personally led the organization's assistance in the aftermath of numerous disasters, including the Johnstown, Pennsylvania, flood (1889) and the Armenian massacre (1893), and provided aid and supplies to Cuban rebels before and during Spanish-American War (1894-1899). Her mission was not only to grant immediate relief but also to supply materials for rebuilding houses and lives.
In 1897, Clara Barton set up the Red Cross Headquarters in Glen Echo, Maryland. Three years later, in 1900, President William McKinley finally signed a bill, which both incorporated the American National Red Cross under a federal charter and, to some degree, protected the insignia. By this time, disagreements over Barton's inability to delegate authority and her insistence upon total control of the organization's finances led to a revolt of the board of directors in 1902, started by Mabel Thorp Boardman. Then, in 1903, after a U.S. Senate investigation, which revealed poor business practices, President Theodore Roosevelt withdrew federal patronage from the American National Red Cross. The following year, Barton resigned, and Mabel Thorp Boardman became the new president. Barton then served as president of the National First Aid Association, which endeavored to teach first aid to people nationwide, from 1905 to 1912.
Clara Barton died on April 12, 1912 of chronic pneumonia, at her home in Glen Echo, Maryland. Joint funeral services were held in Glen Echo and in Oxford, Massachusetts, where she is buried.
Scope and Contents of the Collection
The papers of Clara Barton cover the years 1887 to 1918, and consist of correspondence both by and about Barton, newspaper clippings, and materials of the Women's Relief Corps, Auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Republic. The correspondence focuses on personal matters and her Red Cross relief work in Cuba, as well as her attending the International Red Cross Conference in Carlsruhe, Germany in 1887. The newspaper clippings describe both Barton's involvement in the Red Cross relief efforts in Cuba in 1899, and her work as head of the National First Aid Association of America in 1905. The Women's Relief Corps's materials highlight their efforts to urge Congress to pass a bill granting pensions to women nurses of the Civil War.
Custodial History and Acquisition Information
The University of Maryland Libraries purchased the papers of Clara Barton from Charles Apfelbaum in 1990. The National Trust for Historic Preservation Library Collection transferred the photographs to the Archives and Manuscripts Department in 2003.
Processed by Karen E. Eglinton, June 1990; Revised by Jennie A. Levine, August 2003; Revised by Elizabeth A. Novara, January 2011.
The collection was separated into series, and paper clips and small nails were removed. The collection was then placed in acid-free folders and put into an acid-free box.
EAD markup created using EAD database in Microsoft Access. Markup completed by Sarah Heim.
Arrangement of Collection
The collection has been separated into four series.
Detailed Description of the Collection
Series 1: Correspondence of Clara Barton, 1887-1900 and undated (0.50 linear inches)
This series consists of the correspondence of Clara Barton. The first folder contains correpsondence to Harriette L. Reed, whom Barton addresses as "sister"; Mrs. Reed was an active member of the Women's Relief Corps. These letters discuss topics of Red Cross general business, legislation to protect the Red Cross insignia and incorporation, and miscellaneous personal matters such as visits from relatives; mutual friends; personal health; the weather; and the backyard lawn and garden. Barton's general correspondence addresses the issues of the Russian famine (1887), the Carlsruhe conference (1892), the status of Red Cross auxiliaries, and efforts to address Cuban relief. The correspondence has been divided into two groupings and then arranged chronologically.
|Description||Series||Box / Reel||Folder / Frame|
|Correspondence to Harriette L. Reed (Online), 1898-1900 and undated||series 1||box 1||folder 1|
|General Correspondence (Online), 1887-1892 and undated||series 1||box 1||folder 2|
Series 2: Materials about Clara Barton, 1898-1918 and undated (0.25 linear inches)
This series consists of newspaper clippings documenting Barton's role in Red Cross relief in Cuba and her later efforts to teach first aid in the United States. The series also includes correspondence of her nephew, Stephen Emory Barton to her closest friend, Mrs. J. Sewall (Harriette) Reed concerning Barton's relief efforts in Cuba, as well as letters written to Harriette Reed and Colonel C. S. Young concerning Young's proposed biography of Barton following her death. These items have been arranged by document type and by correspondent, then chronologically.
|Description||Series||Box / Reel||Folder / Frame|
|Correspondence about Clara Barton (Online), 1898-1918 and undated||series 2||box 1||folder 3|
|Newspaper clippings, 1899-1905 and undated||series 2||box 1||folder 4|
Series 3: Women's Relief Corps, 1889-1896 and undated (1.00 linear inches)
This series consists of printed material, correspondence, a sample of the corps letterhead, and a membership list of the Women's Relief Corps, Auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Republic. The correspondence (1889-1890) is from U.S. Representatives and Senators to Mrs. Sarah E. Fuller and Mrs. Kate B. Sherwood, secretary and president of the corps respectively, on Senate Bill 373 of the 51st Congress, which proposed pensions for army nurses. The printed material (1895-1896) details the decisions and resolutions reached at the corps's Thirteenth and Fourteenth Annual conventions, and contains penciled notes. The materials have been arranged by document type, then chronologically.
|Description||Series||Box / Reel||Folder / Frame|
|Correspondence on pension bill (Online), 1889-1890 and undated||series 3||box 1||folder 5|
|Membership book (Online), undated||series 3||box 1||folder 6|
|Printed material (Online), 1895-1896 and undated||series 3||box 1||folder 7|
Series 4: Photographs, 1904 (3 items)
Series IV consists of a photograph of the Clara Barton House in Cabin John, Maryland, taken by Leland Barton on May 15, 1904. The photograph depicts several people standing on the front porch of the house, including Clara Barton (second from left). Also included in this series is a magnified detail of the section of the photograph that contains Clara Barton, and a smaller, postcard-sized print of the photograph.
The box inventory for this series is not currently available online. Please refer to the series description above for a broad description of the materials or contact the department for more information.
Correspondence from Clara Barton is voluminous and is located in many collections throughout the world. Significant collections are located at Smith College in Northampton, MA and at the Clara Barton National Historic Site in Glen Echo, Maryland.
For other related archival and manuscript collections, please see the following subject guides.
Selected Search Terms
This collection is indexed under the following headings in the University of Maryland Libraries' Catalog. Researchers desiring related materials about these topics, names, or places may search the Catalog using these headings.
- American National Red Cross -- History-- Sources
- Barton, Clara, 1821-1912
- Disaster relief -- History -- Sources
- National First Aid Association of America -- History -- Sources
- National Women's Relief Corps (U.S.) -- History -- Sources
- United States -- Armed Forces -- Nurses -- History -- Sources
Names (Added Entries)
- Barton, Stephen Emory
- Fuller, Sarah E., d. 1913.
- Reed, Harriet L., d. 1920
- Sherwood, Kate Brownlee, 1841-1914