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Maryland State Board of Agriculture Report of Leaf Tobacco Sold archives

Abstract

Title:
Maryland State Board of Agriculture Report of Leaf Tobacco Sold archives
Author/Creator:
Maryland State Board of Agriculture Report of Leaf Tobacco Sold
Size:
4.25 linear feet
Bulk dates:
1929-1961
Inclusive dates:
1929-1961
Collection Area:
State of Maryland and Historical Collections
Repository:
Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries, Hornbake Library, College Park, MD 20742. Tel: 301-405-9212, Fax: 301-314-2709, Email: askhornbake@umd.edu
Abstract:

Beginning in 1920 the Maryland State Board of Agriculture attempted to standardize one important branch of the state's agricultural industry. In 1920 the State Board of Agriculture authorized an inspector of tobacco to take charge of tobacco warehouses and goods in Baltimore. In 1939 a Commission of Tobacco Marketing was established to grant licenses for the buying and selling of leaf tobacco and to establish rules and regulations on keeping books on tobacco sales. In 1947 the Maryland Tobacco Authority was assigned the task of fixing marketing periods and testing the accuracy of weights and measures used in tobacco sales. The activities of the Board of Agriculture, the Commission of Tobacco Marketing, and the Maryland Tobacco Authority are documented in this collection through summary reports of sales, citing price, quantity, wholesaler, and date.

Important Information for Users of the Collection

Restrictions:

This collection is open for research.

Preferred citation:

Maryland State Board of Agriculture Report of Leaf Tobacco Sold archives, Special Collections, University of Maryland Libraries.

Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1903.1/1293
Publication rights:

Photocopies of original materials may be provided for a fee and at the discretion of the curator. Please see our Duplication of Materials policy for more information. Queries regarding publication rights and copyright status of materials within this collection should be directed to the appropriate curator.

Status:

This collection is PROCESSED.

Historical Note

Between 1750 and 1938, practically all tobacco growers in Maryland marketed their product through the hogshead markets in Baltimore. In the traditional hogshead market system, farmers brought their cured tobacco in hogshead barrels (650 pounds or greater) to the wholesalers. At the warehouses, inspectors graded the tobacco and selected samples for bidders to examine. The samples were not always representative of the quality of the entire amount to be purchased. Tobacco buyers complained that some farmers "nested" their barrels with higher quality tobacco on top and lower quality tobacco or even other materials underneath. Farmers were often unsatisfied with the closed-bid system of the hogshead markets as well. In 1920, a group of farmers dissatisfied with market prices founded the Maryland Tobacco Growers' Association. This cooperative attempted to standardize prices.

In 1939, Crosby Wyche, a student at the University of Maryland, opened the first loose-leaf market in the state. In the loose-leaf auction system, tobacco farmers labeled and displayed their entire crop of cured leaves for sale. Inspectors continued to officially assign quality grades, but buyers were allowed to peruse all of the tobacco offered for bid. By 1950, Maryland had nine loose-leaf auction warehouses, and the statistics of hogshead warehouses had dropped from five to two; loose-leaf warehouses marketed over ninety percent of Maryland tobacco.

In 1920, the Maryland State Board of Agriculture authorized an inspector of tobacco to oversee the tobacco warehouses and goods within Baltimore. Tobacco wholesalers provided the Board with monthly reports that included numbers for the amount and average price of the tobacco leaf they sold.

Responsibility for inspecting and regulating the tobacco market shifted twice between 1920 and 1961. In 1939, the Maryland State Board of Agriculture established the Commission of Tobacco Marketing to formulate rules and regulations for bookkeeping records of tobacco sales. The commission also granted licenses for the buying and selling of leaf tobacco. In 1947, the Maryland Tobacco Authority, as part of the State Department of Agriculture, began the task of fixing marketing periods and of testing weight and measurement accuracy for tobacco sales. The Maryland State Tobacco Authority continues to regulate the sale of Maryland tobacco domestically and internationally.

Scope and Contents of the Collection

The archives of the Maryland State Board of Agriculture, Reports of Leaf Tobacco Sold, cover the period from 1929 to 1961. The collection consists of monthly reports from tobacco wholesalers to the Board. The reports provide information on the market price of tobacco and the quantities sold by individual wholesalers.

Custodial History and Acquisition Information

Claude G. McKee donated the archives to the University of Maryland Libraries in December 1976.

Processing Information

Processed by:

Unknown, December 1976. Revised by Jill F. Reilly, February 2003.

Processing note:

The collection was processed in December 1976. All staples have been removed and replaced with padded, non-reactive fasteners. The papers are arranged in acid-free folders in acid-free boxes.

Encoded by:

EAD markup created using EAD database in Microsoft Access. Markup completed by Henry Allen, July 2004.

Arrangement of Collection

The collection is organized as 1 (one) series

Detailed Description of the Collection

Series 1: Reports, 1929-1961 (4.25 linear feet)

This series includes monthly reports from tobacco wholesalers to the Maryland State Board of Agriculture. Arrangement is chronological.

DescriptionSeriesBox / ReelFolder / Frame
[oversize ledger], 1929-1935 series 1box 1folder 1
[oversize ledger], 1936-1940 series 1box 2folder 1
Reports, 1941-1948 series 1box 3folder 1
Reports, 1941-1948 series 1box 3folder 2
Reports, 1941-1948 series 1box 3folder 3
Reports, 1941-1948 series 1box 3folder 4
Reports, 1941-1948 series 1box 3folder 5
Reports, 1941-1948 series 1box 3folder 6
Reports, 1941-1948 series 1box 3folder 7
Reports, 1941-1948 series 1box 3folder 8
Reports, 1949-1957 series 1box 4folder 1
Reports, 1949-1957 series 1box 4folder 2
Reports, 1949-1957 series 1box 4folder 3
Reports, 1949-1957 series 1box 4folder 4
Reports, 1949-1957 series 1box 4folder 5
Reports, 1949-1957 series 1box 4folder 6
Reports, 1949-1957 series 1box 4folder 7
Reports, 1949-1957 series 1box 4folder 8
Reports, 1949-1957 series 1box 4folder 9
Reports, 1958-1961 series 1box 5folder 1
Reports, 1958-1961 series 1box 5folder 2
Reports, 1958-1961 series 1box 5folder 3
Reports, 1958-1961 series 1box 5folder 4

Related Material

The University of Maryland Libraries hold the Archives of the Maryland Tobacco Improvement Foundation, the Records of the Maryland State Board of Agriculture, and the Records of the University of Maryland College of Agriculture.

The Libraries also retain copies of several University of Maryland graduate theses that chronicle tobacco marketing in Maryland: Sidney Calvin Miller, The Maryland Tobacco Industry: Production and Marketing, 1963; Paul Francis Summers, Loose Leaf Auction Marketing of Maryland Tobacco, 1953; Walter B. Posey, Marketing of Maryland Tobacco, 1940; and Royal Maurice Jones, An Evaluation of Labor and Facility Utilization in Maryland Tobacco Auction Warehouses, 1962. The theses are available in the Maryland Room. The Bulletin of the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station no. 451, "Marketing Maryland Tobacco" (November 1954) by George Max Beale and Paul F. Summer, Jr., (University Publications UPUB A33.004) is available in the Maryland Room as well.

For other related archival and manuscript collections, please see the following subject guides.

Selected Search Terms

This collection is indexed under the following headings in the University of Maryland Libraries' Catalog. Researchers desiring related materials about these topics, names, or places may search the Catalog using these headings.

Subjects