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Abingbade, Harrison Ola. "The Settler-African Conflicts: The Case of the Maryland Colonists and the Grebo 1840-1900." Journal of Negro History 66 (Summer 1981): 93-109.
Adams, E. J. "Religion and Freedom: Artifacts Indicate that African Culture Persisted Even in Slavery." Omni 16 (November 1993): 8.
Adams, Marseta. "H. Rap Brown: 'Fight for your Rights.'" Calvert Historian 11 (Fall 1996): 53-67.
Aidt-Guy, Anita Louise. Persistent Maryland: Anti-slavery Activity between 1850 and 1864. Ph.D. diss., Georgetown University, 1994.
Alpert, Jonathan L. "The Origin of Slavery in the United States: The Maryland Precedent." American Journal of Legal History 14 (1970): 189-222.
Annotation / Notes: Maryland was the "first province in English North America to recognize slavery as a matter of law" (189). Therefore, the study of Maryland is useful for historians studying how American slavery was a product of the law. Early legislation recognized the existence of slavery, for while indentured servitude and slavery co-existed, and the terms were used interchangeably, the law still distinguished between the two. "All slaves were servants but not all servants were slaves" (193). However, it wasn't until 1664 when a statue was created which established slavery as hereditary. This statute was the first law in English North American to thus establish this type of slavery, legalizing what had been de facto since 1639. The author concludes that laws reflect the attitudes of a society and the manner in which societal problems are resolved. In the case of Maryland, servant problems could be avoided by replacing indentured servitude with perpetual slavery.
Anderson, Douglas. "The Textual Reproductions of Frederick Douglass." Clio 27 (Fall 1998): 57-87.
Anderson, Norman Reginald, Sr. A Comparison of the College Aspirations and Achievements of Afro-American Secondary Students from a Rural County on the Eastern Shore of Maryland during Pre-Segregation (1965-1969), Immediate Desegregation (1970-1974), and Later Desegregation (1985-1989) Periods. Ed.D. diss., University of Maryland at College Park, 1992.
Categories: African American
Anderson-Free, Corine F. The Baltimore Colored Orchestra and the City Colored Chorus. Ph.D. diss., University of Alabama, 1994.
Arpee, Marion. "Maryland Slaves in Hardey Wills and Indentures: 1718-1805." Maryland Genealogical Society Bulletin 22 (Winter 1981): 24-27.
Austin, Gwendolyn Hackley. "In Search of the Little Black Guinea Man; A Case Study in Utilizing Harford County and other Maryland Resources to Track Black Family History." Harford Historical Bulletin 36 (Spring 1988): 29-41.
Bachrach, Peter, and Morton S. Baratz. Power and Poverty: Theory and Practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 1970.
Ballard, Barbara Jean. Nineteenth-Century Theories of Race, the Concept of Correspondences, and the Images of Blacks in the Anti-slavery Writings of Douglass, Stow, and Browne. Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1992.
Ballard, Barbara Jean. "Baltimore: What Went Wrong?" Black Enterprise Magazine 2 (November 1971): 40-48.
Banks, Theresa Douglas. The Development of Public Education for the Negro in Prince George's County (1872-1946). M.A. thesis, Howard University, 1948.
Barber, Mary Combs. "Mathias de Sousa Memorial." Chronicles of St. Mary's 35 (Winter 1987): 80.
Barnett, Todd Harold. The Evolution of 'North' and 'South:' Settlement and Slavery on America's Sectional Border, 1650-1810. Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1993.
Basalla, Susan Elizabeth. Family Resemblances: Zora Neale Hurston's Anthropological Heritage. Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1997.
Baugh, Joyce A. "Justice Thurgood Marshall: Advocate for Gender Justice." Western Journal of Black Studies 20 (Winter 1996): 195-206.
Beachy, Clyde. "The Negro Mountain School." Glades Star 5 (March 1983): 474-477.
Beckles, Frances N. 20 Black Women: A Profile of Contemporary Black Maryland Women. Baltimore: Gateway Press, Inc., 1978.
Bedini, Silvio A. The Life of Benjamin Banneker: The First African-American Man of Science. Rev. ed. Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1999.
Beitzell, Edwin W. "Warren Logan, Educator from Milestown to Tuskegee." Chronicles of St. Mary's 32 (September 1984): 185-188.
Bell, Howard H. "The Negro Emigration Movement, 1849-1854: A Phase of Negro Nationalism." Phylon 20 (1959): 132-142.
Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867. Series I, Volume II. The Wartime Genesis of Free Labor: The Upper South. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
Annotation / Notes: Based upon the Freedman's Papers collection at the National Archives, this volume focuses on the genesis of free labor. Chapter 4, which presents an essay followed by original documents, is devoted to the Maryland experience. Although slavery and free labor co-existed throughout the 19th century, slavery had been concentrated in Southern Maryland and on the Eastern Shore, and it was here that the greatest tension existed during the Civil War era. Runaway slaves quickly appeared at unionist camps, such as Point Lookout, or escaped to the national capital, in search of freedom and employment. By 1864 several government farms were created along the Patuxent River from abandoned property which was home to over 600 former slaves. Former slaves discovered that emancipation did not mean freedom. The state legislature, still under the influence of former slave owners, passed restrictive laws circumscribing their freedom, including an apprenticeship law which allowed white landowners to forcefully "apprentice" black children. The Union commander, General Lew Wallace, attempted to counteract this program by issuing General Order 112, but the effort was not supported by the national government.
Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867. Series II. The Black Military Experience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
Annotation / Notes: Based upon the Freedman's Papers collection at the National Archives, this volume focuses on the black military experience. Unlike most of the previous volumes, where there was an entire chapter devoted to Maryland, references to the state are scattered throughout the book. By the spring of 1865 some 179,000 black men enlisted in the Union army, of which 8,718 were from Maryland. These figures do not include service in the naval forces. Black enlistment helped to undermine slavery but it also contributed to a shortage of labor in rural areas. The families of enlistees were often ill-treated. Once in the Army, blacks were discouraged by unequal pay and by doing more manual labor than fighting. By the end of the war, however, black units fought with distinction. In Maryland, like other border states, black veterans were the objects of widespread terror as the former planter class attempted to reassert its hegemony.