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Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. Free At Last: A Documentary History of Slavery, Freedom, and the Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Annotation / Notes: Based upon the Freedman's Papers collection at the National Archives, this volume covers the comprehensive African American experience from slavery to freedom. Organized around primary documents, with short explanatory introductions, it explores various significant themes in this complex transformation. African Americans discovered that northerners, as well as former masters, were reluctant to recognize their equality and often imposed their views on such things as labor relations, the extent of personal freedom, and their proper role in the military. This book reveals that former slaves possessed a complex and sophisticated understanding of the meaning of freedom.
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Berlin, Ira. Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South. New York: Pantheon Books, 1974.
Annotation / Notes: The author spends some time discussing Maryland, and the Upper South in general, in order to emphasize geographic distinctions which impacted the status of free Negroes. He postulates that the treatment and status of free blacks foreshadowed the treatment of black people in general after emancipation. In addition, the author examines the various classes of free blacks to understand how different groups viewed their social role. For the elite, positions of leadership continued after the Civil War. Maryland is of particular interest since by 1810, almost one-quarter of Maryland's black population was free. Maryland therefore had the largest free black population of any state in the nation.
Billingsley, Andrew. "Family Reunion-The Legacy of Robert Smalls: Civil War Hero." Maryland Humanities (Winter 1993): 14-17.
Blackburn, George M., ed. "The Negro as Viewed by a Michigan Civil War Soldier: Letters of John C. Buchanan." Michigan History 47 (1963): 75-84.
Blassingame, John Wesley. The Organization and Use of Negro Troops in the Union Army, 1863-1865. M.A. thesis, Howard University, 1961.
Blassingame, John W. "'Soul' or Scholarship: An Examination of Black Studies So Far; What Students Learn about History." Smithsonian 1 (1970): 58-64.
Blassingame, John W., and John R. McKivigan, eds. Series one, vol. 4. The Frederick Douglass Papers: Speeches, Debates and Interviews, 1864-80. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.
Blassingame, John W., and John R. McKivigan, eds. Series one, vol. 5. The Frederick Douglass Papers: Speeches, Debates, and Interviews. 1881-95. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
Blight, David W. Frederick Douglass' Civil War: Keeping Faith in Jubilee. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.
Blight, David W. "Up from 'Twoness:' Frederick Douglass and the Meaning of W. E. B. Dubois's Concept of Double Consciousness." Canadian Review of American Studies 21 (Winter 1990): 301-19.
Bogen, David S. "The Annapolis Poll Books of 1800 and 1804: African American Voting in the Early Republic." Maryland Historical Magazine 86 (Spring 1991): 57-65.
Bogen, David Skillen. "The First Integration of the University of Maryland School of Law." Maryland Historical Magazine 84 (1989): 39-49.
Boles, John B. "Tension in a Slave Society: The Trial of the Reverend Jacob Gruber." Southern Studies 18 (Summer 1979): 179-97.
Bolling, Carolyn Rae. An Intergenerational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the African-American Community: An Analysis of the Autobiographies of Olaudah Equiano, Harriet A. Jacobs, Zora Neale Hurston, and Langston Hughes. Ph.D. diss., Temple University, 1997.
Bolster, W. Jeffrey. Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.
Bordelon, Pam. "New Tracks on Dust Tracks: Toward a Reassessment of the Life of Zora Neale Hurston." African American Review 31 (Spring 1997): 5-21.
Borome, Joseph A. "The Vigilant Committee of Philadelphia." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 92 (1968): 320-351.
Boxill, Bernard R. "Fear and Shame as Forms of Moral Suasion in the Thought of Frederick Douglass." Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 31 (Fall 1995): 713-44.
Brackett, Jeffrey Richardson. The Negro in Maryland: A Study of the Institution of Slavery, extra vol. 6. Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1889.
Bradford, S. Sydney. "The Negro Ironworker in Ante Bellum Virginia." Journal of Southern History 25 (1959): 194-206.
Bradley, Gladyce H. "Friendships among Students in Desegregated Schools." Journal of Negro Education 33 (1964): 90-92.
Bridner, Elwood L., Jr. "The Fugitive Slaves of Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (1971): 33-50.
Bridner, Elwood L., Jr. The Mason-Dixon Line and the Fugitive Slave. M.A. thesis, University of Maryland, 1966.
Brock, W. R. "Race and the American Past: a Revolution in Historiography." History [Great Britain] 52 (1967): 49-59.