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Daniels, Christine. "'Getting his [or her] Livelyhood:' Free Workers in a Slave Anglo-America, 1675-1810." Agricultural History 71 (Spring 1997): 125-61.
Annotation / Notes: Compared to slaves and servants, free, white laborers, like Nathaniel Dunnahoe in Kent County, in 1716, have been overlooked. However, Daniels found evidence of both the work they did wheat threshing, shingle and plank making, providing firewood, washing, knitting, and midwifery, among other things and the wages they earned. "Free male and female laborers in the slave Chesapeake found work at tasks either unrelated or only indirectly related to the plantation staple." (p. 157). Economic niches, apparently, existed early on.
Main, Gloria L. Tobacco Colony: Life in Early Maryland, 1650-1720. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Menard, Russell R. "Farm Prices of Maryland Tobacco, 1659-1710." Maryland Historical Magazine 68 (1973): 80-85.
Percy, David O. "Ax or Plow? Significant Colonial Landscape Alteration Rates in the Maryland and Virginia Tidewater." Agricultural History 66 (Spring 1992): 66-74.
Annotation / Notes: Soil exhaustion figured in colonial Maryland's decline, but it was wheat rather than tobacco that did the most damage. "While the ax created an unkempt appearance to the colonial landscape, it was the unwise use of the plow that eventually damaged the soil." (p. 74).
Wyckoff, Vetrees J. Tobacco Regulation in Colonial Maryland. Johns Hopkins University Studies. Extra vol., n.s., no. 22 (1936).
Carroll, Kenneth L. "The Berry Brothers of Talbot County, Maryland: Early Antislavery Leaders." Maryland Historical Magazine 84 (1989): 1-9.
Lewis, Clifford III., ed. "A Relation of a Voyage Made by Mr. Cyprian Thorowgood (from the Patuxent) to the Head of the Baye, April 24-May 5, 1634." Chronicles of St. Mary's 32 (November 1984): 201-207.
Alpert, Jonathan L. "The Origin of Slavery in the United States: The Maryland Precedent." American Journal of Legal History 14 (1970): 189-222.
Annotation / Notes: Maryland was the "first province in English North America to recognize slavery as a matter of law" (189). Therefore, the study of Maryland is useful for historians studying how American slavery was a product of the law. Early legislation recognized the existence of slavery, for while indentured servitude and slavery co-existed, and the terms were used interchangeably, the law still distinguished between the two. "All slaves were servants but not all servants were slaves" (193). However, it wasn't until 1664 when a statue was created which established slavery as hereditary. This statute was the first law in English North American to thus establish this type of slavery, legalizing what had been de facto since 1639. The author concludes that laws reflect the attitudes of a society and the manner in which societal problems are resolved. In the case of Maryland, servant problems could be avoided by replacing indentured servitude with perpetual slavery.
Barnett, Todd Harold. The Evolution of 'North' and 'South:' Settlement and Slavery on America's Sectional Border, 1650-1810. Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1993.
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Cornelison, Alice, Silas E. Craft, Sr., and Lillie Price. History of Blacks in Howard County, Maryland: Oral History, Schooling and Contemporary Issues. Columbia, MD: Howard County, Maryland NAACP, 1986.
Craven, Wesley Frank. White, Red, and Black: The Seventeenth-Century Virginian. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1971.
Annotation / Notes: Remains the standard multi-cultural work for the 17th century.
David, Jonathan. "The Sermon and the Shout: A History of the Singing and Praying Bands of Maryland and Delaware." Southern Folklore Quarterly 51, no. 3 (1994): 241-63.
Ellefson, C. Ashley. "Free Jupiter and the Rest of the World: the Problem of a Free Negro in Colonial Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (1971): 1-13.
Eltis, David. The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Eltis, David, Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and Herbert S. Klein. The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Floyd, Bianca. Records and Recollections: Early Black History in Prince George's County. Bladensburg, MD: Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission, 1989.
Heinegg, Paul. Free African Americans of Maryland and Delaware: From the Colonial Period to 1810. Baltimore: Clearfield, 2000.
Hicks, Helena S. The Black Apprentice in Maryland Court Records from 1661 to 1865. Ph.D. diss., University of Maryland at College Park, 1988.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines the apprenticeship system in Maryland as related to blacks during the period 1661 to 1865. For blacks in Maryland, apprenticeship was one of the earliest forms of education available. Court records are used to examine Maryland's apprenticeship system. Although Maryland's apprenticeship law of 1793 eliminated the reading and writing requirement for apprentices in the case of black apprentices, black apprentices' contracts still contained literacy provisions. Employment in various trade was another benefit resulting from the apprenticeship system.
Johnson, Whittington B. "The Origin and Nature of African Slavery in Seventeenth-Century Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 73 (September 1978): 236-45.
Jordan, Winthrop. White Over Black: American Attitudes toward the Negro, 1550-1812. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
Kimmel, Ross M. "Free Blacks in Seventeenth-Century Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 71 (Spring 1976): 19-25.
Klein, Mary O. "'We Shall Be Accountable to God:' Some Inquiries into the Position of Blacks in Somerset Parish, Maryland, 1692-1865." Maryland Historical Magazine 87 (Winter 1992): 399-406.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines the conversion of free blacks and slaves in Somerset Parish. While a 1664 Maryland law stated that baptism had no effect on the status of a slave, the Anglican church worked towards conversion of the enslaved. However, Christian education and baptism varied depending on individual slaveowners. In some cases, the enslaved themselves refused to be baptized. Evidence of African religious practices remained alongside the practice of Christianity.
Klingelhofer, Eric. "Aspects of Early African-American Material Culture: Artifacts from the Slave Quarters at Garrison Plantation, Maryland." Historical Archaeology 21 (1987): 112-19.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines the objects excavated from the slave quarters at Garrison Plantation near Baltimore, Maryland. Various groups of objects represented early black material culture which reveal aspects of Africanisms. Archaeology is particularly useful for the study of Africanisms found in material culture as patterns of found objects may be compared chronologically and geographically.