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Bidwell, Percy W., and John I. Falconer. History of Agriculture in the Northern United States, 1620-1860. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution, 1925.
Annotation / Notes: Mentions Maryland only regarding farming in 1840 and peach orchards, but is useful since so many Pennsylvania Germans settled in Frederick County.
Carr, Lois Green, Russell R. Menard, and Lorena S. Walsh. Robert Cole's World: Agriculture and Society in Early Maryland. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1991.
Craven, Avery O. Soil Exhaustion as a Factor in the Agricultural History of Virginia and Maryland, 1606-1860. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1925.
Daniels, Christine. "'Getting his [or her] Livelyhood:' Free Workers in a Slave Anglo-America, 1675-1810." Agricultural History 71 (Spring 1997): 125-61.
Annotation / Notes: Compared to slaves and servants, free, white laborers, like Nathaniel Dunnahoe in Kent County, in 1716, have been overlooked. However, Daniels found evidence of both the work they did wheat threshing, shingle and plank making, providing firewood, washing, knitting, and midwifery, among other things and the wages they earned. "Free male and female laborers in the slave Chesapeake found work at tasks either unrelated or only indirectly related to the plantation staple." (p. 157). Economic niches, apparently, existed early on.
Gray, Lewis C. History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860. 2 vols. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution, 1933.
Annotation / Notes: From barley to wool, Gray's great work is unsurpassed in its detail about farming from Maryland's founding to the Civil War.
Main, Gloria L. Tobacco Colony: Life in Early Maryland, 1650-1720. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Menard, Russell R. "Farm Prices of Maryland Tobacco, 1659-1710." Maryland Historical Magazine 68 (1973): 80-85.
Middleton, Authur Pierce. Tobacco Coast: A Maritime History of the Chesapeake Bay in the Colonial Era. Newport News, VA: Mariners Museum, 1953.
Percy, David O. "Ax or Plow? Significant Colonial Landscape Alteration Rates in the Maryland and Virginia Tidewater." Agricultural History 66 (Spring 1992): 66-74.
Annotation / Notes: Soil exhaustion figured in colonial Maryland's decline, but it was wheat rather than tobacco that did the most damage. "While the ax created an unkempt appearance to the colonial landscape, it was the unwise use of the plow that eventually damaged the soil." (p. 74).
Walsh, Jim. "Barrels for a 'Middling Planter' in Colonial Prince George's County." News and Notes from the Prince George's County Historical Society, 25 (August/September 1997): 2-4.
Wyckoff, Vetrees J. Tobacco Regulation in Colonial Maryland. Johns Hopkins University Studies. Extra vol., n.s., no. 22 (1936).
Kulikoff, Alan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1986.
Browne, Gary L. "Milling, Mining and Milking: The Evolution of Harford County." Harford Historical Bulletin 48 (Spring 1991): 46-54.
Fox, Jeanette L. "The Settlement of Wickliff's Creek." Chronicles of St. Mary's 31 (September 1983): 81-88.
Annotation / Notes: Wickliff's Creek was an unusual community of freeholds in a colony of largely manorial landholdings. Due to the nature of freeholding, the early settlers were able to be economically successful and politically active, however, the nature of the community, which allowed the landowners to become successful with little, if any, initial backing, limited expansion, kept the community from growing and most settlers emigrated.
Pogue, Dennis J. King's Reach and 17th-Century Plantation Life. Annapolis, MD: Maryland Historical and Cultural Publications, 1990.
Annotation / Notes: A discussion of the archeological digs at King's Reach and what the findings tell of life at the time, focussing on what can be learned of the plantation's physical layout.
Shomette, Donald. London Town: A Brief History. Londontown, MD: London Town Public House Commission, Inc., 1978.
Annotation / Notes: Londontown, located on the South River, was a very early example of successful town planning in Maryland. The community, however, did not have any long term success due to its economic base in the tobacco system.
Menard, Russell R. "Population, Economy, and Society in Seventeenth-Century Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 79 (Spring 1984): 71- 92.
Annotation / Notes: Menard examines some of the complex social and economic patterns underlying the rapid population growth of Maryland during the seventeenth century despite strong in-migration, high mortality, a shortage of females, and later marriage which often produced unstable family life. Tobacco exports rose dramatically, but the economy eventually suffered from over-dependence on a single crop. Though the colony was established with aristocratic goals, immigrants and their offspring initially created a social and economic pattern in which small planters predominated. However, by the century's end a new gentry class clearly had emerged in an order characterized by greater dependence on slave labor, a decline of indentured servitude, and heightened degrees of inequality.
Carr, Lois Green, and Lorena S. Walsh. "The Planter's Wife: The Experience of White Women in Seventeenth Century Maryland." William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd series 34 (October 1977): 542-71.
Annotation / Notes: Most women coming to Maryland in the seventeenth century were indentured servants between ages eighteen and twenty-five. Hard work in the tobacco fields, late marriage, and early death awaited them. However, for the woman who survived seasoning and their period of service, the sexual imbalance let them choose her husband and seize the opportunity to become a planter's wife. She risked childbirth, bore three to four children, and hoped one or two lived to adulthood. Widows remarried quickly, and complex families were the norm.
Bergstrom, Peter V. "Leah and Rachel Revisited: Everyday Life in the Colonial Chesapeake." Reviews in American History 12 (1984): 176-181.
Dunn, Richard S. "Quantifying the History of the Chesapeake in the Eighteenth Century." Reviews in American History 15 (1987): 563-568.
Hayter, Earl W. "Livestock-fencing Conflicts in Rural America." Agricultural History 37 (1963): 10-20.
Herndon, G. Melvin. "Hemp in Colonial Virginia." Agricultural History 37 (1963): 86-93.
Keller, Allan. "The Catholics in Maryland." Early American Life 9 (1978): 18-21, 78-79.
Kepler, Jon. "Estimates of the Volume of Direct Shipments of Tobacco and Sugar from the Chief English Plantations to European Markets, 1620-1669." Journal of European Economic History [Italy] 28 (no. 1, 1999): 115-36.