Cornelison, Alice, Silas E. Craft, Sr., and Lillie Price.History of Blacks in Howard County, Maryland: Oral History, Schooling and Contemporary Issues. Columbia, MD: Howard County, Maryland NAACP, 1986.
Davidson, Thomas E. "Free Blacks in Old Somerset County, 1745-1755." Maryland Historical Magazine 80 (Summer 1985): 151-156.
Annotation / Notes: County court records of Somerset County, Maryland during the eighteenth century are particularly complete, allowing for detailed studies of the county's population during that period. The author contributes to the scholarship which, up until 1985, focused primarily on the origins of black culture on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in the seventeenth century. The author also adds to the growing scholarship on free blacks in this region, which tended to also focus on the seventeenth century. In addition to examining court records to determine the numbers of free Negroes and mulattoes, the author also attempts to determine how members of these populations obtained their free status, that is, through manumission or the as the result of being children of free mothers (free-born).
Fields, Barbara Jeanne.Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland during the Nineteenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985.
Annotation / Notes: The author explores how free populations in Maryland - both black and white - challenged the notion of a slave society. The free black population, very much interconnected with the slave population in terms of kinship ties, also provided a threat to the underpinnings of the system. Once freedom arrived, social relationships also had to be redefined. The author writes that "free blacks did not occupy a unique or legitimate place within Maryland society, but instead formed an anomalous adjunct to the slave population" (3). By 1840, free blacks in Maryland composed 41% of the total black population of the state, or the largest free black population of any state in the nation.
Fuke, Richard Paul. "The Baltimore Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People, 1864-1870." Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (1971): 369-404.
Annotation / Notes: In 1864, Baltimore businessmen, lawyers and clergymen formed the Baltimore Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People. Many of these men had been associated with emancipation causes. These men coordinated the flow of money and supplies provided by the Freedmen's Bureau. Eventually, the schools founded by the Association were taken over by the state, which had initially not provided for free, public Negro education at all.
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