Williams, Juan.Thurgood Marshall: American Revolutionary. New York: Times Books, 1998.
Annotation / Notes: Thurgood Marshall was the first African American to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court. His rise from a modest upbringing in Baltimore is chronicled in this biography by journalist Juan Williams. Marshall's 1954 victory as the lead attorney in Brown v. Board of Education established his standing as a champion in the Civil Rights movement. Early in his career as a lawyer for the NAACP, Marshall argued the case that led to the desegregation of the University of Maryland.
Cornelison, Alice, Silas E. Craft, Sr., and Lillie Price.History of Blacks in Howard County, Maryland: Oral History, Schooling and Contemporary Issues. Columbia, MD: Howard County, Maryland NAACP, 1986.
Fletcher, William Joseph. The Contribution of the Faculty of Saint Mary's Seminary to the Solution of Baltimore's San Domingan Negro Problems, 1793-1852. M.A. thesis, The Johns Hopkins University, 1951.
Fuke, Richard Paul. "The Baltimore Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People, 1864-1870." Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (1971): 369-404.
Annotation / Notes: In 1864, Baltimore businessmen, lawyers and clergymen formed the Baltimore Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People. Many of these men had been associated with emancipation causes. These men coordinated the flow of money and supplies provided by the Freedmen's Bureau. Eventually, the schools founded by the Association were taken over by the state, which had initially not provided for free, public Negro education at all.
Gardner, Bettye. "Ante-bellum Black Education in Baltimore." Maryland Historical Magazine 71 (Fall 1976): 360-66.
Annotation / Notes: Just before the Civil War, Baltimore had the largest free black population of any city in the country. Most antebellum education of free blacks was provided by the numerous black churches and concerned black and white citizens. Still, free blacks were taxed even though no free public educational facilities were provided for their children. Sunday (Sabbath) schools provided much of the schooling available to free blacks, although a few days schools existed as well, most notably the African School, founded in 1812. By 1859, there were fifteen schools for blacks in Baltimore, all of which were self-supporting, receiving no local or state funding.
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