Cornelison, Alice, Silas E. Craft, Sr., and Lillie Price.History of Blacks in Howard County, Maryland: Oral History, Schooling and Contemporary Issues. Columbia, MD: Howard County, Maryland NAACP, 1986.
Fletcher, William Joseph. The Contribution of the Faculty of Saint Mary's Seminary to the Solution of Baltimore's San Domingan Negro Problems, 1793-1852. M.A. thesis, The Johns Hopkins University, 1951.
Fuke, Richard Paul. "The Baltimore Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People, 1864-1870." Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (1971): 369-404.
Annotation / Notes: In 1864, Baltimore businessmen, lawyers and clergymen formed the Baltimore Association for the Moral and Educational Improvement of the Colored People. Many of these men had been associated with emancipation causes. These men coordinated the flow of money and supplies provided by the Freedmen's Bureau. Eventually, the schools founded by the Association were taken over by the state, which had initially not provided for free, public Negro education at all.
Gardner, Bettye. "Ante-bellum Black Education in Baltimore." Maryland Historical Magazine 71 (Fall 1976): 360-66.
Annotation / Notes: Just before the Civil War, Baltimore had the largest free black population of any city in the country. Most antebellum education of free blacks was provided by the numerous black churches and concerned black and white citizens. Still, free blacks were taxed even though no free public educational facilities were provided for their children. Sunday (Sabbath) schools provided much of the schooling available to free blacks, although a few days schools existed as well, most notably the African School, founded in 1812. By 1859, there were fifteen schools for blacks in Baltimore, all of which were self-supporting, receiving no local or state funding.
Johansen, Mary Carroll. "'Intelligence, Though Overlooked:' Education for Black Women in the Upper South, 1800-1840." Maryland Historical Magazine 93 (Winter 1998): 443-65.
Annotation / Notes: Black and white educators established forty-six schools for free black children in the early nineteenth century. These educators supported education for black women believing that women transmitted knowledge and morals, thus shaping a generation of virtuous citizens. In addition, educators looked to education as a means by which to form self-sufficient and industrious free black communities.
Digital Collections include a portion of the digital objects currently available from the holdings of the University of Maryland Libraries. Digital objects include the digital files of original photographs, correspondence, literary manuscripts, digital audio and video, and other formats.
A small portion of our unique collections have been digitized and many more materials can be accessed by visiting our Libraries.
Librarians are available to help you at any point in your research project. We can be reached by phone, email or in person.
University of Maryland Libraries
College Park, MD 20742
Digital Collections is a project of Digital Programs & Initiatives. Contact Us