Annotation / Notes: Based upon the Freedman's Papers collection at the National Archives, this volume focuses on the black military experience. Unlike most of the previous volumes, where there was an entire chapter devoted to Maryland, references to the state are scattered throughout the book. By the spring of 1865 some 179,000 black men enlisted in the Union army, of which 8,718 were from Maryland. These figures do not include service in the naval forces. Black enlistment helped to undermine slavery but it also contributed to a shortage of labor in rural areas. The families of enlistees were often ill-treated. Once in the Army, blacks were discouraged by unequal pay and by doing more manual labor than fighting. By the end of the war, however, black units fought with distinction. In Maryland, like other border states, black veterans were the objects of widespread terror as the former planter class attempted to reassert its hegemony.