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Abingbade, Harrison Ola. "The Settler-African Conflicts: The Case of the Maryland Colonists and the Grebo 1840-1900." Journal of Negro History 66 (Summer 1981): 93-109.
Alpert, Jonathan L. "The Origin of Slavery in the United States: The Maryland Precedent." American Journal of Legal History 14 (1970): 189-222.
Annotation / Notes: Maryland was the "first province in English North America to recognize slavery as a matter of law" (189). Therefore, the study of Maryland is useful for historians studying how American slavery was a product of the law. Early legislation recognized the existence of slavery, for while indentured servitude and slavery co-existed, and the terms were used interchangeably, the law still distinguished between the two. "All slaves were servants but not all servants were slaves" (193). However, it wasn't until 1664 when a statue was created which established slavery as hereditary. This statute was the first law in English North American to thus establish this type of slavery, legalizing what had been de facto since 1639. The author concludes that laws reflect the attitudes of a society and the manner in which societal problems are resolved. In the case of Maryland, servant problems could be avoided by replacing indentured servitude with perpetual slavery.
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Craven, Wesley Frank. White, Red, and Black: The Seventeenth-Century Virginian. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1971.
Annotation / Notes: Remains the standard multi-cultural work for the 17th century.
Harte, Thomas J. "Social Origins of the Brandywine Population." Phylon 24 (1963): 369-378.
Annotation / Notes: Harte seeks to establish the eighteenth-century origins of a distinctive mixed race "Brandywine" population in Charles County, though he fails to explain this social identity for the general reader. He points to Maryland laws against miscegenation and cross-racial sexual relationships as indirect evidence that both had occurred in the colony and cites Charles County records for violations of those laws. The article provides less direct support for his contention that Native American ancestry may also have been involved in the mixed race unions. Harte concludes that isolated family groupings in the eighteenth century served as the basis of the identifiable Brandywine population in the county in the nineteenth century.
Cox, Ryan. "Debenada, King of Great Nussags, To Jane Johnson, Negro: African-Indian Realtions on the Eastern Shore." Shoreline, 11 (September 2004): 9.