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Harte, Thomas J. "Social Origins of the Brandywine Population." Phylon 24 (1963): 369-378.
Annotation / Notes: Harte seeks to establish the eighteenth-century origins of a distinctive mixed race "Brandywine" population in Charles County, though he fails to explain this social identity for the general reader. He points to Maryland laws against miscegenation and cross-racial sexual relationships as indirect evidence that both had occurred in the colony and cites Charles County records for violations of those laws. The article provides less direct support for his contention that Native American ancestry may also have been involved in the mixed race unions. Harte concludes that isolated family groupings in the eighteenth century served as the basis of the identifiable Brandywine population in the county in the nineteenth century.