Tate, Thad W. "The Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake and Its Modern Historians." In The Chesapeake in the Seventeeth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society. Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman eds., 3-50. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.
Carr, Lois Green. "The Metropolis of Maryland': A Comment on Town Development Along the Tobacco Coast." Maryland Historical Magazine 69 (Summer 1974): 124-45.
Annotation / Notes: Many towns in the Chesapeake area failed during the seventeenth century. Towns were not needed as commercial centers for the tobacco trade, the major economy of the area at that time. Carr uses St. Mary's City as an example of such a failure.
Annotation / Notes: Kent Island was founded in 1631 by William Claiborne. This article provides a description of the community during its early history. Discussed are the manors, the religious congregations, the towns, and the trades. Included is a list of the indentured servants residing there.
Reps, John.Tidewater Towns: City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland. Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1972.
Annotation / Notes: Early towns did not generally spring out of nowhere. Town planning was common and an important part of Chesapeake Maryland's colonial history. The government played an active role in the founding and formation of towns. Annapolis and the District of Columbia were unique in that their plans did not resemble those common amongst other English colonies.
Thomas, Joseph Brown, Jr. Settlement, Community, and Economy: The Development of Towns in Maryland's Lower Eastern Shore, 1660-1775. Ph.D. diss., University of Maryland, 1994.
Annotation / Notes: Thomas argues that the seventeen clustered settlements that dotted the lower Eastern Shore actually functioned as towns. Although legislatively established they have been largely ignored in the history of the Chesapeake region. Most historians argue that the area was rural, when in fact its character was between urban and rural.
Davidson, Steven G., Jay. G. Merwin, Jr., John Capper, Garrett Power, and Frank Shivers, Jr.Chesapeake Waters: Four Centuries of Controversy, Concern and Legislation. 1983; reprint, Centreville, MD: Tidewater Publishers, 1997.
Annotation / Notes: Primarily on the political process paralleling environmental change but containing many references to contemporary conditions and problems.
Davidson, Steven G., Jay. G. Merwin, Jr., John Capper, Garrett Power, and Frank Shivers, Jr.Images of the Chesapeake, 1612-1984. Catonsville, MD: Albin O. Kuhn Library and Gallery, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1985.
Middleton, Arthur Pierce.Tobacco Coast. 1953; reprint, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.
Annotation / Notes: Middleton, subsequently a retired Episcopal Canon, for years directed work at Colonial Williamsburg. This defining volume on Chesapeake Maritime History contains valuable environmental references coupled to the region's colonial economy.
Miller, Henry M. "Transforming a 'Splendid and Delightsome Land:' Colonists and Ecological Change in the Chesapeake, 1670 - 1820." Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 76 (September 1986): 173-87.
Jordan, David W. "Political Stability and the Emergence of a Native Elite in Maryland." In The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays in Anglo-American Society. Edited by Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman, 243-73. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.
Carr, Lois Green. "Emigration and the Standard of Living: The Seventeenth Century Chesapeake." Journal of Economic History 52 (June 1992): 271-91.
Annotation / Notes: Carr contends that the experience of moving from England to the Chesapeake region of America in the seventeenth century was not simply a change of homeland, but a drastic change in lifestyle. She evaluates such factors as marriage, birth rates, life expectancy, diet, housing, working conditions and social freedoms for the English who chose to emigrate to America in that first century. Carr argues that, with the exception of diet, the standard of living may have been higher had the colonists remained in England, but in terms of economic independence and some degree of political participation, their prospects in the New World were superior.
Carr, Lois Green, and Lorena S. Walsh. "The Standard of Living in the Colonial Chesapeake." William and Mary Quarterly 45 (January 1988): 135-59.
Annotation / Notes: Carr and Walsh make detailed use of probate records from seventeenth and eighteenth century Maryland to argue that the period in Chesapeake area history represented a shift from an early emphasis upon material necessities to an improved standard of living marked by "gentility." The authors contend that this change reached across class lines and helped to fuel, rather than check, the productive economy of the colony. The article includes extensive tables and graphs of evidence regarding consumer items for several Maryland and Virginia counties.
Ernst, Joseph A., and H. Roy. Merrens. "'Camden's Turrets Pierce the Skies!': the Urban Process in the Southern Colonies During the Eighteenth Century." William and Mary Quarterly 30 (1973): 549-574.
Annotation / Notes: The authors advance the case that the conventional view that Southern colonies were devoid of urbanization derives from a confusion of form and function, as well as size and significance. The article presents case studies of Camden, South Carolina, and Cross Creek, North Carolina, as well as examples from Virginia and Maryland, to demonstrate that towns often played an important urban function in the economy of the Southern colonies, though their examples are hardly convincing in contradicting the prevailing interpretation.
Fausz, J. Frederick. "Present at the 'Creation': The Chesapeake World that Greeted the Maryland Colonists." Maryland Historical Magazine 79 (Spring 1984): 7-20.
Annotation / Notes: Fausz examines relations between Europeans (especially the English of Maryland and Virginia) and Native Americans of the Chesapeake region in the decade immediately preceding the settlement of the Maryland colony at St. Mary's in 1634. He argues that the interaction between Englishmen and Native Americans provided the basis for tobacco cultivation and the beaver fur trade. Both paved the way for successful adaption of the early English settlers to new American conditions.
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