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Carr, Lois Green, Russell R. Menard, and Lorena S. Walsh. Robert Cole's World: Agriculture and Society in Early Maryland. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1991.
Main, Gloria L. Tobacco Colony: Life in Early Maryland, 1650-1720. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982.
Menard, Russell R. "Farm Prices of Maryland Tobacco, 1659-1710." Maryland Historical Magazine 68 (1973): 80-85.
Percy, David O. "Ax or Plow? Significant Colonial Landscape Alteration Rates in the Maryland and Virginia Tidewater." Agricultural History 66 (Spring 1992): 66-74.
Annotation / Notes: Soil exhaustion figured in colonial Maryland's decline, but it was wheat rather than tobacco that did the most damage. "While the ax created an unkempt appearance to the colonial landscape, it was the unwise use of the plow that eventually damaged the soil." (p. 74).
Barnett, Todd Harold. The Evolution of 'North' and 'South:' Settlement and Slavery on America's Sectional Border, 1650-1810. Ph.D. diss., University of Pennsylvania, 1993.
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998.
Cornelison, Alice, Silas E. Craft, Sr., and Lillie Price. History of Blacks in Howard County, Maryland: Oral History, Schooling and Contemporary Issues. Columbia, MD: Howard County, Maryland NAACP, 1986.
Ellefson, C. Ashley. "Free Jupiter and the Rest of the World: the Problem of a Free Negro in Colonial Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 66 (1971): 1-13.
Eltis, David. The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Hicks, Helena S. The Black Apprentice in Maryland Court Records from 1661 to 1865. Ph.D. diss., University of Maryland at College Park, 1988.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines the apprenticeship system in Maryland as related to blacks during the period 1661 to 1865. For blacks in Maryland, apprenticeship was one of the earliest forms of education available. Court records are used to examine Maryland's apprenticeship system. Although Maryland's apprenticeship law of 1793 eliminated the reading and writing requirement for apprentices in the case of black apprentices, black apprentices' contracts still contained literacy provisions. Employment in various trade was another benefit resulting from the apprenticeship system.
Johnson, Whittington B. "The Origin and Nature of African Slavery in Seventeenth-Century Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 73 (September 1978): 236-45.
Jordan, Winthrop. White Over Black: American Attitudes toward the Negro, 1550-1812. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
Kimmel, Ross M. "Free Blacks in Seventeenth-Century Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 71 (Spring 1976): 19-25.
Klein, Mary O. "'We Shall Be Accountable to God:' Some Inquiries into the Position of Blacks in Somerset Parish, Maryland, 1692-1865." Maryland Historical Magazine 87 (Winter 1992): 399-406.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines the conversion of free blacks and slaves in Somerset Parish. While a 1664 Maryland law stated that baptism had no effect on the status of a slave, the Anglican church worked towards conversion of the enslaved. However, Christian education and baptism varied depending on individual slaveowners. In some cases, the enslaved themselves refused to be baptized. Evidence of African religious practices remained alongside the practice of Christianity.
Kulikoff, Allan. "A 'Prolifick' People: Black Population Growth in the Chesapeake Colonies, 1700-1790." Southern Studies 16 (Winter 1977): 391-428.
Annotation / Notes: The author attempts to document the population growth of Africans and African-Americans between 1660 and 1780. The population grew due to forced immigration or from natural increase. Natural increase helped the founding of enslaved communities and helped in the establishment of kinship systems.
Kulikoff, Alan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1986.
Lewis, Ronald Loran. "Slavery on Chesapeake Iron Plantations Before the American Revolution." Journal of Negro History 59 (July 1974): 242-54.
Menard, Russell R. "From Servants to Slaves: The Transformation of the Chesapeake Labor System." Southern Studies 16 (Winter 1977): 355-90.
Menard, Russell R. "The Maryland Slave Population, 1658 to 1730: A Demographic Profile of Blacks in Four Counties." William and Mary Quarterly, 3d ser., 33 (January 1975): 29-54.
Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1975.
Morgan, Kenneth. "Slave Sales in Colonial Charleston." English Historical Review 113 (September 1998): 905-27.
Saraceni, Jessica E. "Secret Religion of Slaves." Archaeology 49 (November/December 1996): 21.
Saville, Julie. "Rites and Power: Reflections on Slavery, Freedom and Political Ritual." Slavery and Abolition [Great Britain] 20 (April 1999): 81-102.
Starke, Barbara. "A Mini View of the Microenvironment of Slaves and Freed Blacks Living in the Virginia and Maryland Areas from the 17th through the 19th Centuries." Negro History Bulletin 41 (September-October, 1978): 878-80.