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Fenwick, LaVerne M. "The Hebbs of St. Mary's County, Maryland." Chronicles of St. Mary's 39 (Spring 1991): 1-15.
Lewis, Clifford III., ed. "A Relation of a Voyage Made by Mr. Cyprian Thorowgood (from the Patuxent) to the Head of the Baye, April 24-May 5, 1634." Chronicles of St. Mary's 32 (November 1984): 201-207.
National Society of the Colonial Dames of America in the State of Maryland. Adventurers, Cavaliers, Patriots: Ancestors Remembered. Leonardtown, MD: St. Mary's County Historical Society, 1994.
Zseleczky, James Waters. "Anne Mynne of Hertingfordbury, Wife of George Calvert, First Lord Baltimore (1579-1622)." Chronicles of St. Mary's 22 (September 1974): 397-99.
Carr, Lois Green. "The Metropolis of Maryland': A Comment on Town Development Along the Tobacco Coast." Maryland Historical Magazine 69 (Summer 1974): 124-45.
Annotation / Notes: Many towns in the Chesapeake area failed during the seventeenth century. Towns were not needed as commercial centers for the tobacco trade, the major economy of the area at that time. Carr uses St. Mary's City as an example of such a failure.
Carr, Lois Green, and Russell R. Menard. "Wealth and Welfare in Early Maryland: Evidence from St. Mary's County." William and Mary Quarterly 56 (January 1999): 95-120.
Fox, Jeanette L. "The Settlement of Wickliff's Creek." Chronicles of St. Mary's 31 (September 1983): 81-88.
Annotation / Notes: Wickliff's Creek was an unusual community of freeholds in a colony of largely manorial landholdings. Due to the nature of freeholding, the early settlers were able to be economically successful and politically active, however, the nature of the community, which allowed the landowners to become successful with little, if any, initial backing, limited expansion, kept the community from growing and most settlers emigrated.
Mackie, Norman Vardney, III. "Gravestone Procurement in St. Mary's County, 1634-1820." Maryland Historical Magazine 83 (Fall 1988): 229-40.
Annotation / Notes: Thirteen cemeteries were evaluated in this study which demonstrates the socio-economic data that can be compiled from the use and construction type of gravestones. The raw materials of the stones, their style, and the distribution of the stones can all be evaluated and the economic condition of the time deduced. For example, as more prosperous wheat growing farmers populated the area more money was spent on permanent markers. Also, as sandstone became available in the county more tombstone carvers were able to work in the area.
Mackie, Norman Vardney, III. "The Mystery of Historic St. Mary's City." Southern Living 25 (August 1990): 18-19.
Papenfuse, Edward C. Doing Good to Posterity-The Move of the Capital of Maryland from St. Mary's City to Ann Arundell Towne, now called Annapolis. Crownsville, MD: Maryland Historical Trust Press, 1995.
Reps, John. Tidewater Towns: City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland. Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1972.
Annotation / Notes: Early towns did not generally spring out of nowhere. Town planning was common and an important part of Chesapeake Maryland's colonial history. The government played an active role in the founding and formation of towns. Annapolis and the District of Columbia were unique in that their plans did not resemble those common amongst other English colonies.
Categories: Architecture, Historic Preservation, and Town Planning, County and Local History, Geography and Cartography, Politics and Law, Seventeenth Century, Nineteenth Century, Anne Arundel County, Baltimore City, Caroline County, Cecil County, Charles County, Calvert County, Dorchester County, Harford County, Kent County, Prince George's County, Queen Anne's County, St. Mary's County, Somerset County, Talbot County, Wicomico County, Worcester County, Chesapeake Region, Southern Maryland, Eastern Shore
Richardson, Hester Dorsey. "Colors of the Counties." Calvert Historian 8 (Fall 1993): 50-52.
Robinson, Ophelia McKay. "Richard McKay of Maryland and Kentucky." Chronicles of St. Mary's 30 (June 1982): 457-63.
Cox, Richard J. "Public Records in Colonial Maryland." American Archivist 37 (April 1974): 263-75.
Menard, Russell R. "'Maryland's 'Time of Troubles:' Sources of Political Disorder in Early St. Mary's." Maryland Historical Magazine 76 (Summer 1981): 124-40.
Annotation / Notes: An excellent analysis of the difficulty faced by the Calverts in establishing a stable political system in Maryland in the first several decades of settlement. Confronted with William Claiborne's commercial outpost on Kent Island, and hostility from other Virginians and their supporters in London, not to mention Richard Ingle's almost fatal attack on the colony in the mid-1640s, Lord Baltimore used his considerable influence and political skill to protect his interests. Within the colony, the ostensible Catholic hegemony was rent by a dispute between the Proprietor and the Jesuits over their influence in secular affairs, and his goal of establishing a hierarchical manorial political system was undermined by the ease with which indentured servants could obtain land and influence.
Papenfuse, Edward C. "Remarks on the History of the Maryland Legislature, 1643-1694." Chronicles of St. Mary's 32 (May 1984): 149-155.
Carr, Lois Green. "Sources of Political Stability and Upheaval in Seventeenth-Century Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 79 (Spring 1984): 44-70.
Annotation / Notes: Challenging the prevailing notion that seventeenth century Maryland politics were inherently chaotic, Carr argues that community networks were being formed through which information was exchanged and community oversight imposed, and that County courts emerged as de facto local governments. Local men, who may have been planters or former indentured servants, were appointed as justices. During the hiatus following the Revolution of 1689 local government continued to operate. After discussing the various political crises before and after 1689, Carr concludes that the underlying cause of Maryland's political instability was a failure of leadership of the men at the top of Maryland society.
Carr, Lois Green, and Lorena S. Walsh. "Changing Life Styles in Colonial St. Mary's County." Working Papers from the Regional Economic History Research Center 1 (no. 3, 1978): 73-118.
Carr, Lois Green, and Lorena S. Walsh. "Inventories and the Analysis of Wealth and Consumption Patterns in St. Mary's County, Maryland, 1658-1777." Historical Methods 13 (Spring 1980): 81-104.
Carr, Lois Green, and Lorena S. Walsh. "The Standard of Living in the Colonial Chesapeake." William and Mary Quarterly 45 (January 1988): 135-59.
Annotation / Notes: Carr and Walsh make detailed use of probate records from seventeenth and eighteenth century Maryland to argue that the period in Chesapeake area history represented a shift from an early emphasis upon material necessities to an improved standard of living marked by "gentility." The authors contend that this change reached across class lines and helped to fuel, rather than check, the productive economy of the colony. The article includes extensive tables and graphs of evidence regarding consumer items for several Maryland and Virginia counties.
Costello, M. Starr. "The Role of Wealth in Widowhood and Remarriage Patterns in Seventeenth Century Maryland." Chronicles of St. Mary's 28 (July 1980): 197-216.
Fausz, J. Frederick. "Present at the 'Creation': The Chesapeake World that Greeted the Maryland Colonists." Maryland Historical Magazine 79 (Spring 1984): 7-20.
Annotation / Notes: Fausz examines relations between Europeans (especially the English of Maryland and Virginia) and Native Americans of the Chesapeake region in the decade immediately preceding the settlement of the Maryland colony at St. Mary's in 1634. He argues that the interaction between Englishmen and Native Americans provided the basis for tobacco cultivation and the beaver fur trade. Both paved the way for successful adaption of the early English settlers to new American conditions.
Gibb, James G., and Julia A. King. "Gender, Activity Areas, and Homelots in the 17th-Century Chesapeake Region." Historical Archaeology 25 (1991): 109-131.
Annotation / Notes: Using archaeological records and spatial analysis from three Southern Maryland tobacco plantation sites, the authors provide an ethnographic look at life for seventeenth-century Maryland colonists in terms of gender and class roles. The article provides a brief overview of the economics of the Chesapeake region, the structure of living arrangements, and the gendered nature of tasks. The evidence suggests how gendered and class-based activities contributed to both household production and accrued wealth. The authors conclude that comparisons between the three sites provide the basis for understanding how household wealth was a direct corollary of the ability to secure a large work force and to develop a high degree of specialization.
Horn, James. Adapting to a New World: English Society in the Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake. Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia, by the University of North Carolina Press, 1994.
Annotation / Notes: Horn examines Chesapeake society in the period 1607 to 1690 to determine the degree to which English attitudes and values persisted in the adaptation to New World conditions. He provides a comparison of the English societies from which the settlers had come (Gloucestershire and Kent as representative regions of England) to those they established in the Chesapeake region (Lower Norfolk and Lancaster Counties in Virginia serve as case studies, supplemented by considerable evidence drawn from St. Mary's County, Maryland) in terms of family, work, standard of living, social order, and religion. Horn concludes that "Maryland and Virginia society is incomprehensible without an awareness of English social development in the seventeenth century" (p. 437).
Hurry, Silas D. "The 17th Century Tidewater, A Tentative Dietary Analysis." Chronicles of St. Mary's 26 (April 1978): 367-73.