Johansen, Mary Carroll. "'Intelligence, Though Overlooked:' Education for Black Women in the Upper South, 1800-1840." Maryland Historical Magazine 93 (Winter 1998): 443-65.
Annotation / Notes: Black and white educators established forty-six schools for free black children in the early nineteenth century. These educators supported education for black women believing that women transmitted knowledge and morals, thus shaping a generation of virtuous citizens. In addition, educators looked to education as a means by which to form self-sufficient and industrious free black communities.
Klein, Mary O. "'We Shall Be Accountable to God:' Some Inquiries into the Position of Blacks in Somerset Parish, Maryland, 1692-1865." Maryland Historical Magazine 87 (Winter 1992): 399-406.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines the conversion of free blacks and slaves in Somerset Parish. While a 1664 Maryland law stated that baptism had no effect on the status of a slave, the Anglican church worked towards conversion of the enslaved. However, Christian education and baptism varied depending on individual slaveowners. In some cases, the enslaved themselves refused to be baptized. Evidence of African religious practices remained alongside the practice of Christianity.
Kulikoff, Allan. "The Beginnings of the Afro-American Family in Maryland." In Law, Society, and Politics in Early Maryland. Edited by Aubrey C. Land, Lois Green Carr, and Edward C. Papenfuse, 171-96. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977.
Kulikoff, Allan. "The Origins of Afro-American Society in Tidewater Maryland and Virginia, 1700 to 1790." William and Mary Quarterly 35 (April 1978): 226-59.
Annotation / Notes: The author argues that enslaved blacks living in Tidewater Maryland and Virginia during the eighteenth century developed their own community life, in order to disprove the notion that the enslaved were forced to accept Anglo-American beliefs and values without question. The author examines the process of creating Afro-American culture in these tidewater regions. He concludes that the development of Afro-American communities did not take place until the middle of the eighteenth century, a much slower process of development than that which took place in the West Indies.
Kulikoff, Allan. "A 'Prolifick' People: Black Population Growth in the Chesapeake Colonies, 1700-1790." Southern Studies 16 (Winter 1977): 391-428.
Annotation / Notes: The author attempts to document the population growth of Africans and African-Americans between 1660 and 1780. The population grew due to forced immigration or from natural increase. Natural increase helped the founding of enslaved communities and helped in the establishment of kinship systems.
Kulikoff, Alan.Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1986.
Levy, Peter B. "Civil War on Race Street: The Black Freedom Struggle and White Resistance in Cambridge, Maryland, 1960-1964." Maryland Historical Magazine 89 (Fall 1994): 290-318.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines Cambridge, Maryland in order to gain a local perspective on the civil rights movement. The author sets out to understand the movement at the grass roots level, instead of focusing on national leadership and civil rights legislation. Cambridge has been consistently overlooked in studies of the civil rights movement, and the author wonders if this has been the case since events in Cambridge do not fit neatly into typical historical narratives of the movement.
Lewis, Ronald Loran. "Slave Families at Early Chesapeake Ironworks." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 86 (April 1978): 169-79.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines the self-determination on the part of blacks enslaved as ironworkers in order to counter the view of the fragmented black family as espoused by scholars such as E. Franklin Frazier and Daniel P. Moynihan. The author examines such Maryland ironworks as Northampton Furnace and Patuxent Iron Works. Ironworkers were provided opportunities for "overwork" - that is, working overtime in return for cash or supplies. The money allowed ironworkers and their families an improved standard of living. In addition, ironworkers did not experience strict controls over their free time, home life, or leisure activities. These factors, the author feels, contributed to a stable family structure among enslaved ironworkers.
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