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Fuke, Richard Paul. "Blacks, Whites, and Guns: Interracial Violence in Post-Emancipation Maryland." Maryland Historical Magazine 92 (Fall 1997): 326-47.
Fuke, Richard Paul. Imperfect Equality: African Americans and the Confines of White Racial Attitudes in Post-Emancipation Maryland. New York: Fordham University Press, 1999.
Gardner, Bettye J. "Opposition to Emigration, a Selected Letter of William Watkins (The Colored Baltimorean)." Journal of Negro History 47 (Summer 1982): 155-158.
Garonzik, Joseph. Urbanization and the Black Population of Baltimore, 1850-1870. Ph.D. diss., State University of New York, Stony Brook, 1974.
George, Christopher T. "Mirage of Freedom: African Americans in the War of 1812." Maryland Historical Magazine 91 (Winter 1996): 426-50.
Annotation / Notes: Black men fought for both the American and British forces during the War of 1812. For example, free blacks who constructed earthworks and black sailors in the U.S. Navy helped to deflect the British attack on Baltimore in 1814. Free blacks and slaves who decided to help the British hoped to secure freedom in return for their services.
Gibson, Donald B. "Christianity and Individualism: (Re-) Creation and Reality in Frederick Douglass's Representation of Self." African American Review 26 (Winter 1992): 591-603.
Goldin, Claudia Dale. Urban Slavery in the American South 1820-1860: A Quantitative History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
Annotation / Notes: Numerous references to Baltimore.
Goldstein, Leslie F. "Violence as an Instrument for Social Change: The Views of Frederick Douglass, 1819-1895." Journal of Negro History 41 (January 1976): 61-72.
Graham, Leroy. Baltimore: The Nineteenth Century Black Capital. Washington, DC: University Press of America, Inc., 1982.
Groves, Paul A., and Edward K. Muller. "The Evolution of Black Residential Areas in Late Nineteenth-Century Cities." Journal of Historical Geography 1 (April 1975): 169-91.
Annotation / Notes: Includes Baltimore.
Guy, Anita Aidt. Maryland's Persistent Pursuit to End Slavery, 1850-1864. New York: Garland Pub., 1997.
Harrold, Stanley. "Freeing the Weems Family: A New Look at the Underground Railroad." Civil War History 42 (December 1996): 289-306.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines conventional and scholarly interpretations of underground railroad by looking at the escape of the Weems family from the Chesapeake region of Maryland. By using the Weems family as a case study, the author challenges thirty years' worth of scholarship on the underground railroad. By examining a family that escaped from a border state, the author is able to explore both black self-determination and white assistance found in the records of this family's escape. In addition, the author examines a bi-racial network of non-Garrisonian abolitionists who raised money to purchase the freedom of slaves, or if that was not possible, to channel the money raised into effecting an escape plan.
Harris, William C. "James Lynch: Black Leader in Southern Reconstruction." Historian 34 (1971): 40-61.
Hicks, Helena S. The Black Apprentice in Maryland Court Records from 1661 to 1865. Ph.D. diss., University of Maryland at College Park, 1988.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines the apprenticeship system in Maryland as related to blacks during the period 1661 to 1865. For blacks in Maryland, apprenticeship was one of the earliest forms of education available. Court records are used to examine Maryland's apprenticeship system. Although Maryland's apprenticeship law of 1793 eliminated the reading and writing requirement for apprentices in the case of black apprentices, black apprentices' contracts still contained literacy provisions. Employment in various trade was another benefit resulting from the apprenticeship system.
Hoopes, Roy. "Frederick Douglass: The Eloquent Crusader." Maryland 21 (Winter 1988): 28- 31.
Howard-Pitney, David. "Wars, White America, and the Afro-American Jeremiad: Frederick Douglass and Martin Luther King, Jr." Journal of Negro History 71 (Winter, Spring, Summer, Fall 1986): 23-37.
Johansen, Mary Carroll. "'Intelligence, Though Overlooked:' Education for Black Women in the Upper South, 1800-1840." Maryland Historical Magazine 93 (Winter 1998): 443-65.
Annotation / Notes: Black and white educators established forty-six schools for free black children in the early nineteenth century. These educators supported education for black women believing that women transmitted knowledge and morals, thus shaping a generation of virtuous citizens. In addition, educators looked to education as a means by which to form self-sufficient and industrious free black communities.
Jordan, Winthrop. White Over Black: American Attitudes toward the Negro, 1550-1812. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1968.
Katz, Sarah. "Rumors of Rebellion: Fear of a Slave Uprising in Post-Nat Turner Baltimore." Maryland Historical Magazine 89 (Fall 1994): 328-33.
Klein, Mary O. "'We Shall Be Accountable to God:' Some Inquiries into the Position of Blacks in Somerset Parish, Maryland, 1692-1865." Maryland Historical Magazine 87 (Winter 1992): 399-406.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines the conversion of free blacks and slaves in Somerset Parish. While a 1664 Maryland law stated that baptism had no effect on the status of a slave, the Anglican church worked towards conversion of the enslaved. However, Christian education and baptism varied depending on individual slaveowners. In some cases, the enslaved themselves refused to be baptized. Evidence of African religious practices remained alongside the practice of Christianity.
Kulikoff, Alan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, 1986.
Lampe, Gregory Paul. Frederick Douglass: Freedom's Voice, 1818-1845. Ph.D. diss., University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1995.
Lewis, Ronald Loran. "Slave Families at Early Chesapeake Ironworks." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 86 (April 1978): 169-79.
Annotation / Notes: The author examines the self-determination on the part of blacks enslaved as ironworkers in order to counter the view of the fragmented black family as espoused by scholars such as E. Franklin Frazier and Daniel P. Moynihan. The author examines such Maryland ironworks as Northampton Furnace and Patuxent Iron Works. Ironworkers were provided opportunities for "overwork" - that is, working overtime in return for cash or supplies. The money allowed ironworkers and their families an improved standard of living. In addition, ironworkers did not experience strict controls over their free time, home life, or leisure activities. These factors, the author feels, contributed to a stable family structure among enslaved ironworkers.
Lewis, Ronald Loran. Slavery in the Chesapeake Iron Industry, 1716-1865. Ph.D. diss., University of Akron, 1974.
McConnell, Roland C. "Frederick Douglass--Invincible Freedom Fighter--And the Opening of the Douglass Institute." Maryland Pendulum (Summer 1991): 3-4.