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George, Christopher T. "Mirage of Freedom: African Americans in the War of 1812." Maryland Historical Magazine 91 (Winter 1996): 426-50.
Annotation / Notes: Black men fought for both the American and British forces during the War of 1812. For example, free blacks who constructed earthworks and black sailors in the U.S. Navy helped to deflect the British attack on Baltimore in 1814. Free blacks and slaves who decided to help the British hoped to secure freedom in return for their services.